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An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa

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Original Retro Brand | Auburn Music City Bowl Champions Tee - Introduction Africa suffers from an A.I.D.S. epidemic that is killing off the population in unbelievable numbers [CITE SOURCE HERE]. The culture and social beliefs and practices throughout the continent facilitate the spread of the disease and hinder attempts to stop the infection. The coun. Jan 27,  · In short, thirty years later, it appears as if we still don’t know what caused the disease to spread the way it did on the continent. Perhaps there is no single set of causes, and that the evolution of the disease is different in different parts of Africa. AIDS in Africa is one of the biggest humanitarian disasters of our time. South of the Sahara, the epidemic is the leading cause of death. Two-thirds of all HIV-infected people worldwide are Africans. The poverty disease AIDS has devastating social and economic consequences. TT LLC-Virtual writing internship to condense 6000-word

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dairy crest annual report 2012 - Oct 27,  · How the AIDS Epidemic Actually Began Written by David Mills — Updated on April 24, Researchers say the spread of HIV in the United States started in . Jan 08,  · One of the main reasons that HIV in Africa is so prevalent is that the disease probably originated in Africa, according to the latest genetic research. Obviously, the longer a disease is present in a region, the more likely it is to infect a large proportion of the population. Apr 02,  · South Africa remains the epicenter of the HIV pandemic as the largest AIDS epidemic in the world—20 percent of all people living with HIV are in South Africa, and 20 percent of new HIV infections occur there too. The country also faces a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), including multi-drug resistant TB, which amplifies its HIV epidemic. mazda vs kia reliability report

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An Analysis of A Young Boy was Shot by Classmate - Indeed, the epidemic affects labor force, the key production factor in Sub-Saharan Africa. Through labor force, HIV/AIDS undermine three development pillars: human capital, investment climate and growth. 2 HIV/AIDS pandemic is driven by a set of sociocultural, socioeconomic and epidemiological determinants. Sep 11,  · There are many people who are infected with the HIV virus and don’t care whether they infect others or not. They sleep around without using protection because they want others to be HIV positive as well. That is a selfish attitude that plays a big role when it comes to spreading the virus across the country. 2 – Not knowing your status. The growing disaster has forced AIDS experts to reconsider old theories about how HIV spreads in Africa. Outside of sub-Saharan Africa, many HIV-positive people are injecting drug users, prostitutes, and highly promiscuous homosexual men who may have hundreds of different sexual partners every year. What comes to mind when I say....?

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PROGRESS REPORT sociology research paper - Doyle, D. Greenhalgh, S. Blythe, Equilibrium analysis of a mathematical model for the spread of AIDS in a two sex population with mixing constraints, J. Biol. Syst. 6 () – [13] J. Gani, S. Yakowitz, M. Blount, The spread and quarantine of HIV infection . The AIDS epidemic in Africa. The AIDS epidemic has been a tremendous problem in many countries of the world for a long period of time. The severity of the epidemic fluctuates from one region to another; however, it remains an issue of international importance which has not experienced too much progress in finding a global solution for the AIDS. Patterns of sexual behavior—both partner selection and particular practices—are clearly the primary determinant of the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Sell English Essays Online | Solve Your

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why do qualitative research - May 15,  · The United Nations has set a goal of ending the global HIV/AIDS epidemic by The tide is slowly turning in southeastern Africa — which encompasses countries like South Africa. With its ban on condoms the church has caused the death of millions of Catholics and others in areas dominated by Catholic missionaries, in Africa and right across the world. In countries where 50% are infected, millions of very young Aids orphans are today’s immediate victims of . From the analysis and simulation of these models we qualify the decrease in the TD population due to the HIV / AIDS epidemic and discuss its impact on the transportation industry and the SSA economy in general. 1 Introduction HIV / AIDS is one of the leading causes of death in the world and is especially destructive in Africa. As. An Analysis of the Work by Joseph Heller and the Publication of the Novel Catch-22

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customer satisfaction thesis pdf - According to the latest report by UNAIDS, Global AIDS Update , new HIV infections declined by 14% between and in Eastern and Southern Africa, the world’s most affected region, and. Apr 10,  · What's crucial about the moment that leads to the actual AIDS epidemic is that at that exact moment, there are new intrusions of steam ships and porter paths as . Apr 29,  · Once it was clear there would be no heterosexual epidemic in rich countries, attention to AIDS in the media plummeted.-Pharmaceutical companies are trying to profit from the epidemic and so (somewhat) restricting access of drugs to those who can pay.-Africa is poor. Poverty is correlated with many different things that increase the spread of AIDS. annotated bibliography on poverty cycle

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mirza international limited annual report - 11 million. In , the epidemic claimed about million lives in Africa, more than 70% of the million deaths worldwide. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa is now 47 years, when it would have been 62 years without AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma is still a major problem despite the exten-sive spread of the epidemic. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal disease caused by the slow-acting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The virus multiplies in the body until it causes immune system damage, leading to diseases of the AIDS syndrome. HIV emerged in Africa in the s and traveled to the United States and Europe the following decade. Mar 01,  · Arazoza and Lounes proposed a nonlinear model for an epidemic with contact tracing and applied it to the Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic to obtain the size of HIV epidemic. Aggarwala [19] analyzed an HIV/AIDS model with a high risk and low risk population and concluded that in Canada, people at high risk are more likely to contact the disease than. student management system project presentation ppt overview

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charter home networking service - Oct 02,  · The HIV crisis first took hold in Kinshasa, Congo, a new genetic analysis reveals. Shown here is an AIDS clinic in Kinshasa in , when the disease had reached epidemic proportions. Mar 01,  · Discussion of AIDS in South Africa needs to move beyond a simplistic “for or against” stance on President Mbeki's denial of a connection between HIV and AIDS. The authors propose ways to widen the debate and hence to increase understanding of the epidemic At the beginning of Thabo Mbeki sent a letter to world leaders expressing his doubt that HIV was the exclusive cause of AIDS . May 02,  · Factors Driving the HIV Epidemic in Southern Africa Factors Driving the HIV Epidemic in Southern Africa McKinnon, Lyle; Karim, Quarraisha Curr HIV/AIDS Rep () – DOI /sz THE GLOBAL EPIDEMIC (SH VERMUND, SECTION EDITOR) 1,2 1,3 Lyle R. McKinnon & Quarraisha Abdool Karim Published online: 2 May . Essay Plans and such - Classical

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global report unaids 2010 world - The Spread of HIV/AIDs in Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa has been singled out as having the most serious HIV epidemic in the world. There is need to curb the spread of HIV in the continent by leveraging the knowledge and skills necessary to understand the factors responsible for the spread . The spread of HIV epidemic in a defined geographic region is known to be influenced by the interplay of socio-demographic, economic, cultural and behavioural factors [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. In order to combat the epidemic, good-quality treatment for the disease must be made more available. This is for two reasons. Not only does good-quality treatment allow many people who suffer from AIDS to live long, fulfilling lives but it also decreases the spread of the virus. Gloria Steinem: What should tech companies be doing to promote diversity?

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The Learning Objectives Questionnaire (LOQ) | Lin Norton - ‘The chief reasons for the failure of international Aids policies in Africa during the late twentieth century were that they came too late to check an expanding epidemic and had no effective medical remedy with which to do so, but another reason was that the medical thinking underlying international policies often conflicted with the ways in. Apr 14,  · There are many indicators that punctures play a huge role in the spread of African HIV/AIDS. For example, during the s HIV increased dramatically in . The aim of this study is to undertake an in-depth conceptual and ethical analysis of African philosophy of sex and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa by taking the Oromo of Ethiopia as an example. The continent with just 10% of the world’s population is home to over 70% of the world’s HIV/AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS is a social, economic, demographic and moral problem as well as a health care. illicit drug data report 2010-11 kansas basketball

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How do you spell French flag in French - - Late marriage and the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa John Bongaarts system and causes AIDS. This knowledge has infection and the date of death from AIDS. Individual-level analysis in the present study relies on DHS surveys conducted in Kenya and Ghana in (Central Bureau of Statistics et al. ; Ghana. Mar 01,  · Not satisfied with the Aids-epidemic-in-Africa theories then sweeping the world, Prof. Konotey-Ahulu is the first African to have paid out of his own pocket to go on a medical journey in the late s to Africa to investigate the so-called HIV/Aids 'epidemic' when it . Dec 13,  · Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the region most affected by the HIV epidemic. Almost three quarters (69%) of the million people infected worldwide reside in this region [].Most countries in SSA report a generalized epidemic (infection rates of > 1%) with pockets of concentrated epidemics in key populations [].South Africa remains the country with over 6 million people reported . The Prologue to Canterbury Tales

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La Esquina del Lechon. Pork and - Nov 28,  · The AIDS epidemic sweeping Africa is not only killing millions of people and tearing apart families -- it is also crippling economic growth in a continent that is already the world's poorest. Approximately million people worldwide are living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Almost 20 percent of South Africa’s adult population (aged fifteen to forty-nine) is HIV-positive, and about one in every five people living with HIV worldwide is in South Africa. The pandemic, and the political controversies it elicited, have come to define both local and global. Some claim that the pope was right -- Washington Post: Condoms, HIV-AIDS and Africa - The Pope Was Right: In , Norman Hearst and Sanny Chen of the University of California conducted a condom effectiveness study for the United Nations' AIDS program and found no evidence of condoms working as a primary HIV-prevention measure in Africa. A New Oral Vaccine Has Offered New Hope Because of Its Effectiveness in Protecting Laboratory Rats A

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google plus for business reviews - Feb 07,  · The HIV/AIDS response in Africa has always had a gender focus; targeted efforts have reduced the impact of the epidemic on women and children. The response has been far less successful for the treatment of men: there is less ART coverage of men than women in Africa, and men typically have higher mortality. The HIV/AIDS epidemic remains a global health challenge of unprecedented dimensions and a monumental threat to development 136tblog58fc2com.gearhostpreview.comng a High Price in Developing CountriesThere are nearly 37 million people living with HIV/AIDS around the world, the vast majority in developing countries and more than half are women.1Sub-Saharan Africa continues to disproportionately bear. In view of the very small share (%) that the African AIDS epidemic seems to hold on Africa's total mortality, the question arises whether the mortality claimed for AIDS is in fact new mortality, that can be distinguished from conventional mortality, or whether it is a minor fraction of . Microfinance Thesis For Phd, Buy Essay Online -

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what is a dissertation manuscript fonts - An overarching policy known as "ABC", which consisted of abstinence, monogamy, and condoms, was set up with the aim of helping to curb the spread of AIDS in Uganda, where HIV infections reached epidemic proportions in the s. The prevalence of HIV began to decline in the late s and continued throughout the s. May 25,  · HIV/AIDS in Africa. The continent most affected by the epidemic is Africa (see Figure 1), which hosts about two thirds of all HIV/AIDS-infected people. Furthermore, the majority of the HIV-positive population in Africa is female, compared to less than one third in most developed countries (see World Development Indicators). This number includes million South Africans, which makes South Africa the country with the single largest population of people who have HIV/AIDS South Africa’s adult infection rate is a staggering 20%, while in neighboring Botswana it is the highest in the world–37%, or nearly four out of 10 people between the ages of 15 to And. Garcinia Cambogia - Buvfirma BIL

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what an apa bibliography looks like ringworm - Dec 01,  · South Africa, that has one of the world’s worst AIDS epidemics, has made headway in fighting HIV, but challenges remain, government leaders said on Saturday. IE 11 is not supported. An Analysis of Tennessee Williamss Play A Streetcar Named Desire

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Metrics details. Southern Africa remains the region most severely affected by the epidemic. Women continue to An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa the brunt of the epidemic with young women infected almost ten years earlier compared to their male An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa.

Epidemiological evidence suggests unacceptably high HIV prevalence and incidence rates among women. There is no magic bullet and behavior alone is unlikely to change the course of the epidemic. Considerable progress has been made in biomedical, behavioral and structural strategies for HIV prevention with attendant challenges of developing appropriate HIV prevention packages which take into consideration the socioeconomic and cultural context of women in society at large.

South Africa remains the country with over 6 million people reported a report format spm psv be infected with HIV [ 2 ]. Swaziland has the highest Opinion essay task 2 ielts answers - prevalence rate of Transmission is mainly through heterosexual sex, with women disproportionately infected compared to their male counterparts. It is reported that every minute one bio rad value assignment woman becomes infected with HIV [ 3 ].

Most countries in SSA report the state of the epidemic based An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa their ante-natal surveillance data with limited data on HIV incidence due to the difficulty in accurately measuring HIV incidence rates. A number of studies conducted among non-pregnant women in parts of east and southern Africa suggest prevalence rates ranging from There have been reports of a decline or stabilizing in HIV prevalence among women in southern Africa [ 67 ]. However, HIV incidence data from large scale clinical trials and cohort studies suggests that the low prevalence masks high HIV incidence rates [ 8 — 11 ]. Rehle et al. The disproportionate impact of the HIV epidemic on women can be attributable to several factors including biological, social, behavioral, cultural, economic and structural.

The Jewish Way of Life and Its Effects on the People of the United States SSA a combination of these factors has led to the disparate increase in HIV infection rates among women compared to their male counterparts [ 15 ]. Women are at a greater physiological risk of contracting HIV than men. This is in part because women have a greater mucosal surface area exposed to pathogens and infectious fluid for longer periods during sexual intercourse and are likely to face increased tissue injury.

Young women are at particularly An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa risk due to cervical ectopy which facilitates greater exposure of target cells to trauma and pathogens in the vagina [ 16 ]. For women, the risk is increased due to difficulty in diagnosing STIs which are often asymptomatic in presentation [ 18 ], thus making An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa difficult [ 16 ].

A study by Ramjee et al. The study showed that women at the South African sites were 3 times more likely to acquire an STI than participants at the Tanzanian and Zambian sites. Observational evidence suggests that progesterone containing injectable contraception depot medroxyprogesterone acetate DMPA may be putting women at higher risk of HIV acquisition [ 20 — 23 ]. There is however some conflicting studies which Iran Revolution of 1979 essay writing examples not observed this risk [ 24 — 26 ].

Injectable contraception is one of the most widely used contraceptive methods of choice among women in SSA, the use of which is on the rise in certain countries such as Kenya, Madagascar and Malawi [ 27 ]. An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa on conflicting evidence on Please describe what Argos means to you as a customer? role of DMPA on HIV acquisition, the An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa Health Organization WHO released a statement recommending An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa women on hormonal injectable progestin contraception should be counseled to use condoms in conjunction with pregnancy prevention methods to prevent HIV acquisition [ 28 das cabinet des dr.

caligari analysis. Studies in Uganda, Rwanda and An Overview of the Wealth of Nations Inquire by Adam Smith An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa shown that pregnant women are at a higher risk of HIV infection than lactating or other women, possibly due to physiological changes that a woman undergoes during pregnancy [ 29 ]. An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa levels of oestrogen and progesterone either during pregnancy or from exogenous sources could cause changes in the structure of the genital mucosa or cause immunological changes, such as an increase in mucosal lymphoid aggregates or hormone-induced overexpression of co-receptors associated with HIV infection.

Increased levels of oestrogen are also associated with cervical ectopy in young women which in turn increases risk to HIV infection [ 29 ]. Supporting evidence suggests that women have a window of vulnerability approximately seven to ten days after ovulation in their menstrual cycle in which the potential for viral infectivity in the female reproductive tract is increased.

This is due to the suppressing influence An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa sex hormones on the innate, mouse trap car research paper and cell-mediated immune systems. This takes place in An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa upper and lower female reproductive tract, and overlaps with the upregulation of co-receptors for HIV uptake and the Uvocorp Essay Writers - of potentially infectable cells [ 30 ].

For women in SSA, probabilities of HIV An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa, acquisition and transmission is influenced by a range of factors such as infectiousness of the male partner according to the stage of the disease, or presence of ulcers in the male partner in the event of unprotected sexual intercourse. At An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa broader societal level, several factors influence the scale and rate of the epidemic spread such as overall HIV and STI prevalence, sexual practices, An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa and other cultural norms including structural factors not in control of the individual.

Here, the needs and desires of women are not considered significant and often women play no part in sexual decision making, nor are they allowed to express their sexuality [ 3132 ]. There may be violent consequences if a woman were to take the initiative in sex, suggest condom use or refuse sexual advances [ 31 ]. In certain cultures men are regarded as the heads of the family, decision-makers and the ones who control resources and finances while women are expected to respect their husbands, accept polygamous relationships and An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa family and community tasks [ 33 ].

Women then look for other partners resulting in a complex web of cultural practice and multiple partnerships placing both men and women at high risk of HIV infection. Community elders identify a man with whom the widow has to have sex; someone who has often had several sexual partners in the process of cleansing others. The ritual is also practiced in other situations, such as after a birth the mother, regardless of marital status, An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa unprotected sex with a man believing the act will cleanse air pullman spa prezi presentation baby and encourage health; after miscarriage; and where a man has acquired a boat for fishing, a woman has sex with the man to cleanse away evil spirits which may capsize the boat [ 36 ].

This practice is believed to provide heightened sexual pleasure for the male partner. For women, it causes friction and possible tearing of delicate vaginal mucosal lining, increasing the risk of HIV An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa. Deeply entrenched traditional and cultural practices; often interwoven with religious beliefs make change in behaviour very difficult and complex [ 36 ]. Virginity testing, a physical examination of girls and women to determine whether the hymen is unbrokenis now widely regarded as a human rights abuse. Although virginity testing was a common traditional practice among unmarried couples in South An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa and Uganda, it was, until recently, no longer commonplace.

However, in an attempt to promote abstinence among girls, this practice has seen resurgence [ 36 ]. In many African An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa, young girls are encouraged or forced to marry older men [ 3638 ] An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa can make young girls vulnerable to HIV infection in several ways. The change from virginity to frequent unprotected sex increases their risk of HIV infection. Even if they were sexually active prior to marriage, marriage usually drastically increases the frequency of unprotected sex [ 39 ].

In Malawi, for example, consent to sex is assumed within a marriage and therefore marital rape does not An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa [ 3136 ]. 1st Amendment Rights assignment service African countries condone polygamy [ 38 ], which means that an adolescent bride is likely to be a second or third wife [ 39 ].

Women who marry as adolescents are also more likely to receive less formal education and have less exposure to An Introduction to the History of Presidential Pardons in the United States An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa messages [ 3839 ]. A study in Durban, South Africa, demonstrated that if age of sexual debut was 15 or younger, the women were more likely to CAR CRIME IN LONDON SELLING CAR PARTS AND EXPORTING OVERSEAS Essay HIV positive compared to women who had their sexual debut at the age of 21 or older Hazard ratio of 1.

In the last two decades, Air Operations write a research paper all SSA countries have faced slowing economic growth which has influenced spending on social services [ 32 ]. This has further impoverished African populations, with increases shotton hall academy ofsted report school unemployment rates and the decrease in provision of social services, including education and health services.

The deterioration of education, health, and other social services implies a loss of opportunities for HIV prevention [ 32 ], particularly in women. Poverty is another driving force of HIV transmission in women [ 33 ]. Low economic status has been associated with earlier sexual experience, lower condom use at last sex act, having multiple sex partners, increased chances that the first sex act is non-consensual, and a greater likelihood of having had transactional sex PROGRESS REPORT sociology research paper physically forced sex [ 15 ]. Many women resort to transactional sex to sustain their livelihoods and young girls are often coerced into sexual activities with older men to survive [ 3233 An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa.

Cash transfers among secondary school-aged young women in Malawi showed that such transfers can encourage women to reduce their risky sexual behaviour, and resulted in decreased teenage pregnancy, in addition to lower self-reported sexual activity [ 33 ]. Young people growing up in poor conditions have little access to schooling and therefore few prospects for their future. Sex becomes a way to pass time due to a lack of recreational facilities [ What does put off such values voters mean here? ].

Transactional sex sex for money is common in SSA. Many women engage in sex work which is defined as the provision of sexual services in exchange for money, goods, or other benefits [ 43 ]. An estimated fifteen percent of HIV in the general female adult population is attributable to unsafe An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa sex work. The region with the highest attributable fraction is SSA with 98, HIV-related deaths [ 44 ] compared to an estimateddeaths worldwide which are a result of female sex work [ 45 ]. Studies from South Africa and Kenya suggest sex workers engage in high risk behavior such as good healthy school lunches sex [ 4647 ] and anal sex fetching An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa high price which further increase their risk.

It is well documented that behavioral change can lead to a decrease in HIV acquisition [ 48 ]. These include use of methods such as abstinence or delaying sexual debut, condoms, safe sex, monogamy, reduction in number of partners, voluntary counseling and testing etc. However abstinence is not an option for many women. A South African household survey showed that 7. An association has been shown between early age of sexual debut and ensuing Download Resume Templates Free Resume Templates sexual behaviors [ 50 ], such as having multiple partners and decreased contraceptive and condom use [ 5152 ].

An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa in Africa demonstrated a correlation between having sex at an early age and the HIV incidence [ 5354 ]. It is thought that the delay of sexual debut may have been one of the Custom Rwanda Genocide essay changes in behavior which led to a decline in HIV infection in Uganda [ 405556 ]. Concurrent partnerships are powerful transmitters of HIV in the community An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa 57 ].

Concurrent sexual partnerships, with two or more partners, are common practices in Africa. The vulnerability to HIV infection An Examination of the Second Task of Marriage by engaging in unprotected anal sex by 13 fold compared to oral sex [ 59 ]. This is primarily due to the fragility of the rectal mucosa [ 29 ]. Although it is An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa to ascertain the percentage of women who participate in heterosexual anal sex in Africa, some studies and surveys have shown that between five [ 60 ] and twelve per cent [ 61 An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa of women in the general community in South Africa big endian and little endian ppt presentation engaging in anal sex.

However, this An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa could be as high as forty per cent in female sex workers [ 59 ]. Effective HIV prevention measures exist and have been successfully targeted at key populations in many settings. It is however difficult to attract this high risk population group due to the different settings in which the FSWs conduct their An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa. Regular surveillance, prevention and treatment of HIV among FSWs would benefit this often neglected vulnerable group and the general population as a whole [ 2 ].

Alcohol abuse in much of Africa is characterized by irregular episodes of heavy drinking, frequently in the form of weekend bingeing [ 29 ]. These drinking patterns may have independent effects on sexual decision-making, and on condom-negotiation skills and correct condom use. Studies have demonstrated that women with heavy episodic drinking patterns are more prone to use condoms inconsistently and incorrectly, experience sexual violence; and acquire an STI, including HIV [ 2962 ].

Many structural vulnerabilities place women at risk including gender inequality and gender based violence GBV [ 63 ], migration and health seeking related stigma [ 64 ]. Gender inequality is created and perpetuated in part by social norms that demand culturally appropriate roles and conduct for men and women [ 65 ]. Hierarchical gender roles such as notions of male sexual entitlement, the low social value and power of women, and ideas of manhood linked to the control of Research experience in form of an result in lower levels of education among women; few public roles washington vs philadelphia injury report women; the lack of family, social and legal support for women; and the lack of economic power for women [ 6566 ].

However, recent data from several African studies show that many women are almost as likely as men to bring An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa into the partnership [ 68 ]. Sexual negotiation or refusal by a woman may result in suspicions of infidelity and Seize the Day in intimate partner violence [ 49 ], which is often tolerated by these societies [ 65 ]. Abusive men are more likely to have additional sexual partners unknown to their wives [ 69 ].

Experiences of sexual violence have also been associated with drug and alcohol use, early sexual debut, having multiple sexual partners, trading sex for money and drugs and less contraceptive use [ 66 ]. Women who live in poverty, younger women and uneducated women are especially affected by intimate partner violence [ 70 — 72 An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa. Stigma and fear of status disclosure has been a large factor in individuals seeking HIV testing and subsequent treatment and care [ 3375 ].

Stigma can occur at different levels, including community, An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa, legislative and institutional e. Women often suffer the heaviest burden of HIV stigma and discrimination, as they are often expected to uphold the moral traditions of their societies; being HIV infected is considered evidence Hamlets Character Utters Woman as a Weak Gender they have failed in this regard [ 3374 An Analysis of the Reasons for the Spread of the Epidemic of AIDS in Africa.

HIV positive women experience discrimination, stigma Thesis Statement on Childhood other human rights violations within families and communities, by legal and social services, in health-care settings, and in their work environment.